Connection of heating radiators: diagrams, strapping, installation
One.Pipe. Hot water is supplied to the top floor. From there, flowing down the radiators, it enters the solitary mall in the cylindrical production of cylindrical. This type of connection is considered the simplest. It is distinguished by high reliability and is used in all apartment buildings, where central heating is connected.
To achieve such simplicity, temperature control sensors are not placed on the radiators. Therefore, the difference in the coolant cooling between the upper and lower floors can sometimes exceed 10 degrees. It all depends on the material from which the radiator is made.
This is why one.Pipe systems are equipped with cast.Iron batteries. These devices have high heat transfer, as a result of which the difference in the cooling of the devices between the floors is reduced.
Single.Pipe heating systems are divided into two groups:
The second type of structure is equipped with a valve that allows you to monitor the flow of water, as well as a thermostat that controls the temperature of the coolant.
Two.Pipe. To circulate fluid in the radiator, several looped pipelines are installed. A hot coolant is supplied through one ring, and the liquid is returned to heating through another, called the return.
Radiators in such a heating system have the same temperature. However, two circuits require more consumables. Similar designs are installed in cottages and elite multi.Storey buildings.
Balancing of the heating system
However, there are other situations. For example, if at the entrance to the farthest from the boiler room you notice that there is definitely much colder than in others, then this is an occasion to think about the uniformity of the distribution of the coolant.
The fact is that any fluid, according to one of the basic hydraulic laws, prefers to flow along the path of least resistance. If you allow the coolant to go as it pleases, then he will not take care of evenly warm up all the radiators in the house. That is why balancing is often simply necessary.
Adjusting heating radiators
To understand the question of how to regulate heating batteries with a regulator, first of all, the principle of their functioning should be found out. In its design, the radiator consists of labyrinth of pipes and ribs of different types, providing increased heat transfer.
Hot liquid enters the input to the device, passes through the labyrinth and thereby heats the metal, and he gives heat to the surrounding air. The ribs on modern radiators make a special form that improves convection of air flows, and the heating of the room occurs quickly.
In the case of active heating from the batteries, a heat stream is felt. This means that when changing the amount of heat carrier passing through the device, you can adjust the temperature of the heating of the room, however, within certain limits.
It is for this that special reinforcement is intended. Thermal controllers and valves. But the heating regulator installed on the battery in the apartment is not able to increase heat transfer, it can only lower it.
The effectiveness of the change in the temperature of the battery depends:
The inertia of the entire heat supply system and the batteries themselves is of no small importance. For example, cast iron, which is distinguished by a large mass, changes the temperature slowly, and aluminum heats up quickly and also cools down. This means that there is no sense in cast.Iron radiators with temperature adjustment, since the result of this has to be expected for a long time.
Heating problems. We control the temperature of the water in the network
An equally important characteristic of the operation of the heating network is the temperature of the coolant. In two.Pipe systems, the optimal characteristics of the temperature of hot and cooled coolant is a ratio of 75/50 degrees or 80/60 degrees. To easily adjust the temperature, you will have to install special equipment and elements in the system.
How to turn different radiator valves off
The easiest way to create mixing units on the network. A mandatory element of such nodes are two- and three-way taps. One patrol of the mixing unit is connected to a pipe with hot water, and the second to a pipe with cold water. The third pipe is installed on a section of the highway, which requires a decrease in the temperature of the fluid, in case of such need.
To simplify the use of mixing nodes, they are equipped with temperature sensors and a special thermostatic control unit. The sensor can give a signal about the temperature of the coolant and, based on the temperature level, close or open a mixing valve to adjust heating. Typically, such equipment is mounted in a warm floor collectors. For effective adjustment of the water temperature in heating an apartment building, it is necessary to take into account the temperature regime in pipes, usually the temperature of the pipes in the rooms of the apartment does not exceed 45 degrees.
To reduce the temperature of the water in the pipes of an apartment building, you can use a special locking reinforcement. Sometimes the installation of simple cranes that regulate the flow of coolant in batteries is enough, but in this case, the heating of the room will have to control. It is much easier to regulate heat supply using servo drives.
Servo drive is a device whose design includes a drive control unit and thermostat. In order for the temperature in the rooms to be always maintained at the same level, it is necessary to set the desired value on the thermostat, and the servo will automatically open and close the flow of coolant into the radiator. To reduce repair costs, you can simply purchase a model only with a thermostat. But in this case, the adjustment will not be so accurate.
We control the temperature of the water in the network
To adjust the temperature in apartments with old heating systems and cast.Iron radiators, special thermostats must be used. These devices, however, do not allow you to change the pressure in the pipes, for this it is necessary to use specialized means.
Adjusting the heating batteries in the apartment: Types of shut.Off valves, how to adjust the heating of a private house
The use of appropriate valves and mechanical shut.Off valves allows you to adjust the heating batteries in a private house and maintain the optimum temperature in individual rooms.
For example, in the kitchen or in the living room you can set a thermal cell at 20 degrees Celsius, and in the bedroom or children’s room to adjust the radiators for greater efficiency, maintaining the temperature at the level of 22–24 degrees.
Today, many apartments in high.Rise buildings are equipped with individual meters of thermal energy, respectively, properly tuning the batteries, you can reduce your costs for heating the room. In some cases, only when installing the simplest valves on heating radiators can save 30-40% of the average monthly costs.
Today in our homes various types of radiators are used, characterized by their design and material from which they are made. Cast iron batteries are gradually replaced by effective bimetallic and aluminum radiators, which allow you to quickly heat the room, reducing the costs of communal needs.
The design of a standard radiator is a labyrinth of pipes with numerous ribs that increase heat transfer. Hot water enters the battery through the input pipe, it heats up metal elements, which allows for intense heating of the room.
Adjusting the efficiency of the heating of the battery is to change the amount of coolant entering the radiator. Accordingly, by reducing or increasing its volume, you can quickly vary the temperature in the room. For such adjustment, all kinds of valves and thermostats are used, which are distinguished by a reliable design, they are durable and easy to operate.
It is only necessary to understand that the use of valves, thermostats and other locking reinforcement will not be able to increase the heat transfer of the existing heating system.
The main purpose of such valves is a decrease in the intensity of the heating of the room, which allows you to adjust the temperature in batteries, create an optimal microclimate in the house and save on communal expenses.
If the homeowner needs to increase the heat transfer of the heating system, then you will need to change old ineffective radiators for new installations or perform the appropriate battery service.
To increase heat transfer, it is recommended to perform the following:
- Check pipes and filters for clogging. Such work is performed in the summer, which allows the service without disconnecting from the heating of the entire riser.
- With autonomous heating, you can increase the temperature of the coolant. However, in apartments with centralized heating it will be impossible to do this.
- Changing the type of connection of batteries can also positively affect their effectiveness. For example, the lateral method of installation of radiators reduces the heating power by 25%.
- There is a possibility of installing additional batteries or increasing the number of sections. Such work is carried out exclusively after coordination with utilities.
The easiest way to increase the efficiency of the heating system by installing new modern batteries. Such radiators are characterized by compact dimensions, they are easy to operate, and thanks to their unique design, they allow you to quickly heat the room, while reducing utility bills.
Various devices that are reliable, ease of operation and are offered at affordable can be used to adjust the battery in apartments. All locking equipment can be divided into several main groups.
These are the simplest devices that can reduce the volume of the coolant entering the installed radiators. Controversial reinforcement is performed in the form of ball cranes with two provisions:
It is not recommended to leave ball valves in an intermediate position, since the valve is quickly damaged by solid particles contained in the coolant of the heating system.
The disadvantage of using locking cranes to adjust the battery is the need for frequent manipulations, when the homeowner manually needs to open and close valves.
With the help of such devices it will be impossible to create an optimal and stable temperature regime in the room.
A room thermostat.Comparison of temperature adjustment methods.
Naps with manual adjustment allow you to reduce the heating battery, reducing the volume of the coolant entering the radiators. This adjustment is carried out by reducing or increasing the diameter of the passage hole.
A manual valve has a locking head, the position of which changes depending on the location of the handle. To simplify the adjustment of the volume of the coolant entering the battery, a scale with divisions can be applied on the crane body to set the desired battery temperature.
Automatic thermal controllers allow you to maintain the optimal microclimate in the room in completely autonomous mode. Such locking equipment can respond to air temperature in the room, automatically changing the degree of heating of the radiator. The working element in such thermostats is a needle valve that doses the volume of liquid flow in the battery.
Calculation of radiator power
In order for the heating system to be quite effective, you need to choose the right power of the radiators for each room. There are several professional calculation methods, but most of them are very complex. Despite the possibility of taking into account a large number of parameters, owners of private houses rarely use complex formulas, preferring simple solutions.
The easiest way to calculate looks like this: for heating 1 m 3 of rooms, 20 watts of power are required. Accordingly, knowing the volume of the room and dividing it into 20, you can easily find the desired result. The resulting value is divided into an indicator of the heat transfer of one section of the radiator, as a result of which the number of sections necessary for heating a particular room is determined. If the quality of the insulation of the house leaves much to be desired, then about 15% of the admission should be added to the calculations.
Direct.Acting temperature regulators
This type of thermoregulators refers to simple devices with which you can control the temperature in heating devices. Therefore, they have them directly next to the radiator. A sealed cylinder with a siphon inside is taken as a basis for the design. The siphon is filled with special liquid or gas, which can respond to a change in water temperature in radiators.
When heated, the working environment in the siphon expands and exerts pressure on the thermoregulator valve, as a result, the flow of the coolant is overlapped. The question of how to reduce heating on the battery, receives a decision. When the temperature decreases, the reverse process occurs.
This device is usually mounted in the heat supply system before the pressure gauge. The valve smoothly and effectively changes the flow of the coolant, gradually blocking it. The peculiarity of the design of this device is that the width of the passage in it is less twice.
For example, when installing an inch pipes and the same cross.Section of the needle valve, its throughput will be only ½ inch. As a result, each device mounted in the system reduces this parameter. Several products installed in series, for example, in a single.Pipe structure, lead to the fact that the latest devices will be slightly warm or become cold.
Since the passage is greatly narrowed, the needle device is not recommended to install when solving the problem associated with how to adjust the temperature of the battery, since its heat transfer is greatly reduced.
Features of heating systems
Carrying out balancing of hydraulic heating systems depends on the system of the system. There are circumstances that facilitate the procedure:
- When a fairly powerful boiler is used in a private house to ensure heating all housing.
- Three.Legged cranes are installed in the batteries.
- It is possible to carry out forced pumping of the coolant.
- If heating is not very important in certain rooms (such as the basement, garage or similar), then they need to take care of high.Quality thermal insulation of pipes. This will reduce the unproductive heat consumption.
- When adjusting the heating system, it is desirable that the heating system is enabled. This will not only carry out balancing, but also evaluate the result based on your feelings. It is important not only to evenly distribute the heating between the batteries, but also to optimally determine the intensity of their work.
- To ensure the effective operation of the system, you need to prevent excessive heat leakage. In this case, it is necessary, for example, to take into account the operation of the ventilation system, the use of air conditioners.
- When adjusting, it is recommended to pay attention to which room in the house is the coldest. It is recommended to open valves as much as possible in it, and adjust the rest, taking into account the fact that the maximum heat consumption is supposed to be in this room.
- When adjusting, for example, a two.Pipe heating system, it is important not only to evaluate the temperature of the coolant, but also to hang thermometers in the premises to evaluate the result of this work. It is important to consider that a comfortable temperature for various family members may vary significantly. Therefore, before the start of balancing, you need to plan. What temperature of the air in the rooms should be obtained after the end of the setting.
- It is necessary not only to observe the balance between batteries, but also to correctly adjust the operation of the heating boiler. He should not work in vain, creating an unnecessary additional heating in the house.
In apartment buildings, the possibility of balancing the heating system is less than in private houses. Often pipes with coolants transmit the liquid from top to bottom. In this case, each riser warms up separately.
Since the heated liquid first enters the upper floors, they get the maximum amount of thermal energy, and cool water gets to the lower floors. To conduct adjustments in such situations, you must contact the management company. Residents do not have the right to do this work on their own.
If a multi.Apartment building is equipped with a multi.Pipe network, then heating is more evenly performed. In this case, water enters from the central riser with a separate pipe to each apartment. The cooled coolant does not enter the other apartment, but returns to the central riser. The supply pipe is equipped with an adjusting valve, which allows you to set the desired heating intensity.
There are two central risers in the two.Pipe system, from each of which the pipe goes into the apartment. In this case, the apartment can separately adjust the warming up of each radiator. Here you can install not only manual, but also an automatic temperature controller.
How to Convert Old Radiators into Multi-Zone Hydronic Heat | This Old House
There are two types of heating mounting. Horizontal and vertical. The first option is often used in low.Rise buildings, in that strength of those that have a significant length. Vertical is usually used in apartment buildings. In such a network, air traffic jams are almost never formed.
Heating in private houses depends only on internal factors. In the multi.Apartment, the state of the system is determined not only by what is happening in the apartment, but also by the work of the heating system of the whole house. When using vertically located pipes, it is almost impossible to record heat consumption in a separate apartment.
In a private house, the possibilities of hydraulic balancing, accessible to the owner, depend on the following factors:
- The features of the radiators used depend on whether they are connected correctly to the pipes. Only under this condition, the adjustment will be effective.
- The material from which the pipes are made, as well as their diameter, is important. They determine the speed of the heat carrier and the features of its heat exchange.
- Whether the mixing nodes are used. They help more economically use heat. In these nodes, hot water from the heating boiler is mixed with the one that has already managed to cool.
It is important where and what adjustment devices were installed. The location and varieties of such devices are planned at the design stage. Some owners do not pay due attention to planning and mount the equipment by eye. Typically, such a heating system has a smaller efficiency and does not always allow you to effectively regulate the level of warming up.